Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Play the Baohuanghui Guessing Game--Unidentified Chapters

The Baohuanghui had at least 150 chapters, but we are still identifying where they were located. Here are  names of chapters in towns found in Baohuanghui documents that we can't identify by their geographical names. Remember that these would be pronounced in Cantonese.   Those in blue have been identified since we first posted this list.

The basis of this list (#1-48 below) is a 1908 document  naming 94 chapters that made donations for a Baohuanghui headquarters building. It is found in 《捐建帝国宪政总会所买地征信录published in Kang Youwei yu Baohuanghui (pp. 529-537) . Thanks to Gao Weinong for pointing us to this list. We have added other unidentified chapters as we have found them. These chapters could be in the Americas, Asia, Australia (although we believe have fully identified Australian chapters), the Pacific or Africa. We don't believe there were chapters in Europe.

For already identified chapters, see the document  Mapping the BaohuanghuiAs chapters are idenfied, they are added. Especially useful have been the 1901 and 1913 International Chinese Directories, thanks to Philip Choy.

Appended to this list are many Canadian chapters whose place names are still unknown, thanks to the research of Zhongping Chen, University of Victoria and Chi Jeng Chang, Vancouver, BC.

Please leave your best guesses in the Comments field.
1. 墨属亚林务士埠 ALAMOS, SONORA, MEXICO [see 1913 International Chinese Directory p. 63-4 for Alamas/Hermosillo]

4. 道禧埠
5. 意史伦敦埠 [East London or New London, Connecticut, US?  New London society is mentioned in Hartford Courant about BHH member funeral in Hartford, CT, 10-9-1905] ]
6. 呍地碧埠 [Winnipeg, Canada?]
8. 钵厘士卜埠 [Plattsburgh, New York, US?]
9. 咭厘亚根埠
10. 立定士顿埠 [Lewiston, Idaho, US?]
11. 坎文顿埠 [Hamilton or Hampton, Ontario, Hammond, BC, or Edmunton, Alberta, Canada?]
13. 布路非埠 [Bluefield, West Virginia, US or Bluefield, Nicaragua--1913 Directory, p. 46?]
山地把罷, Santa Barbara, 1946 "Handbook of Chinese in America"]
17. 哈巴埠 HAVRE, MONTANA, US [1913 Directory, p. 57]
18. 谏拿呢埠 [谏拿呢埠 CANANEA Mexico: 墨国谏拿尼埠宪政党致康徐总长书(191999 (KYW yu Baohuanghui pp 484-6) 
19. 柏失地埠  PARK CITY, UTAH

20. 火打慎火伴埠 [Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada?]
路士卜埠 [Roseburg, OR 勞士卜—1913 Directory p 1534? or  Lordsburg, New Mexico, US 律士卜?-1913 Directory, p. 58]
22. 乾连仑埠
23. 比呖珠创埠
24. 粒巴埠 [Napa, California, US?--1913 Directory, p. 52]
25. 敬士失地埠 [Kansas City, Missouri, US?]
26. 加李士跛埠 KALISPELL, MONTANA, US--1913 Directory, p. 57
27. 吸呛埠 [Capetown, South Africa?]
28. 红毛埠
30. 波士顿埠 BOSTON
31. 因陈卢卜埠 [Indianapolis?]
32. 火品顿埠 Fort Benton, MT?--1903 Chinese and English Phrasebook: 火邊頓
33. 姐仑埠
34. 千二米埠
35. 禄市仓埠
36. 保士顿埠 [Boston, MA, or Bozeman, Montana, US 保市文 1946, 1913 directories; Mark Johnson believes Bozeman is a likely chapter] 

37. 散岛埠 SAN SALVADOR, EL SALVADOR [see Fang Zhiqin 2008, p 293]
38. 典地港打埠 ANACONDA, MONTANA, US [1913 Directory, p. 57]
火士娣埠 [Fort Steele, BC?--but see Canadian list below]
40. 美所罅埠 [Missoula, Montana, US?--1913 Directory, p. 57]
41. 卜忌斜拿埠 [Pocatello, Idaho, US or Bocas Del Toro, Panama?]
42. 新味埠
43. 威麻埠[Weimar, CA? or Guaymas, Mexico?—1913 directory威罵士 (wai-mah-sih)]
44. 加榄罢市埠 [Kalama, WA?]
45. 闲拿尼埠
46. 姐咕埠
47. 新进埠
48. 山寸埠 [could be San Antonio--see #52; in 1913 directory San Antonio appears as 山旦村; in Huang Sande 1937 Sun Yatsen itinerary as
49. 雪地美慎 [1904, Kang Tongbi Invited to speak here by Hartford chapter]
50. 续本埠 [letter from Huang Huiquan re education in Zhongguo Weixinbao, v. 1, #5, 1904] Juk-bun
51. 布滿埠 BEAUMONT, TEXAS [where membership badges distributed 1905--KTB South Windsor; see Huang Sande, "Hongmen Geming Shu," 1937 p. 9 re Sun Yatsen US itinerary]
52. 美属新村 SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS--戚市省新村埠 —Zhongguo Weixin Bao 8/4/1904 letter from New Orleans announcing new chapter, most congratulation telegrams from Mexico; also in 1907 list of chapters attending NY meeting
53. 加利委市噸 GALVESTON, TEXAS [1913 directory p 60]
54. 汕嘩囉 [may be San Salvador, or nearby]
55. 啡路底吪  [could this be Philadelphia?, in #TL#555 from BHH chapter of
水路爹吪,  January 5, 1903 ]56. 叨蒙
57. 升譜埠 ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA  胜普埠 [representative at 1907 NY BHH congress]
58. 埃士拿 [Oxnard, CA?]
59.  烏柯連 [mentioned as chapter in Zhongguo Weixinbao, 9/15/1904]—is this near Los Angeles?
60.  西印度占尾架 [in West Indies?]
61. 積鬱 [may be near Pittsburgh--10/24/1905 letter #192 from Kuang Shoumin to Tom Leung, UCLA]
62. 那伏埠 [probably in US, where membership badges distributed 1905--KTB South Windsor]
63. 拉雅 [probably in US, where membership badges distributed 1905--KTB South Windsor]
64.黎法 [in Hawaii? or a person in Honolulu? where membership badges distributed 1905--KTB South Windsor]
65.  水路爹吪 [Seui-louh-dai-ngoh—possibly Springfield, MA or Springfield, IL, or nearby city; established by Xu Qin Nov-Dec 1902 (TL#555); reporting on its membership recruitment to 啡路底吪 [see #55 above]
66. 纽喜允埠 [NAU-HEI-WAHN:  NEW HAVEN, CT] This is on 1908 list but left out after #28.1948 “Handbook of Chinese in America” uses same characters for New Haven.
67. 市左利亞埠 [Sih-Jo-Li-Nga/a]—probably in Oregon or Northern California; Liang Qitian formed chapter there in mid-August 1900 [July 30 was in Portland; August 27 arrived in San Francisco], “Fu Wen Yan Lun,” Zhongxi Ribao, August 16, 1900.

UNIDENTIFIED CANADIAN CHAPTERS [some have been tentatively added to Mapping the Baohuanghui"Mapping the Baohuanghui"]

  1.    火市姊 [Fort Steele, BC?]
  2.    亚极士 [Agassiz, BC?]
  3.   利地吻 [Ladysmith,Kitamat, or Lilloet, BC?]
  4.  啡叻板偈 [Fraser Sawmill, BC?--on 1715 Government Street, Victoria donor plaque]      
  5.   火委啉 [Falkland, Fair Valley or Fort Valley, BC?]
  6.   那市边 [Nass Bay or Nakusp, BC?]
  7.  乾粦蔚 [Quesnel or Chilliwack, BC?]
  8.   市姊厂 [Steveston, BC? 士地厰埠 (Wenxing Bao 8/5/1901)]
  9.  章臣 [Johnson, Ontario or Johnsons Landing, BC?]              
  10.   茄市隙 [Cache Creek, Cash Creek or Chase Creek, BC?]
  11.  锦补碌  CRANBROOK, BC     
  12.  葛汝 [Courtenay or Keremeos, BC?]              
  13.  亚市给 ASHCROFT, BC
  14.  几粦蔚 [Greenwood or Glenwood, BC?]
  15.  纲龙架 [Malakwa or Castlegar, BC?]
  16.  老埃仑 [Long Island, BC? or Lulu Island, BC? 魯埃侖]; Lulu Island, a place of fish processing and canneries visited by Ye En, Li Fuji and others August 1901 to make speeches and take donations (Wenxing Bao 8/5/1901). Steveston is on Lulu Island, the largest island south of Vancouver in Fraser R. estuary. Lulu Island may not be a separate chapter from Steveston.]
  17.  把归  [Burgoyne Bay or Barkerville, BC?]             
  18. 申汝 [Sidney or Surrey, BC?]
  19.  襟补碌 [same as #11]
Possible chapters w/o Chinese names that don’t seem to be above but are plausible as chapters and for which no direct evidence of a chapter exists:

  1. Nampa, Idaho—Kang visited, Oct 18, 1905, lunch at local Chinese temple-- in 1913 directory; 20 miles from Boise.
  2. Tampico 探必固, Mexico [from Wanmucaotang poem, thus Kang’s name for Tampico]; visited by Kang April 1906—many Chinese there; KYW “entertained in royal style by his compatriots,” El Paso Daily Times, April 30, 1906, p4. Kang wrote about his visit there and fishing on the Rio Tamesi; he sailed from there to NY. 


  1. #8 -- I take that back. Misread "卜". More likely Plattsburgh, or maybe Butlersburg (Ontario).

  2. #4 Dewey Beach, Delaware? (道禧 in Cantonese = "douh-hei")

  3. 32--possibly Weimer, California

    51--maybe Beaumont, Texas

    1. I understand how Beaumont, TX could be #51--we know it had enough Chinese to appear as one of the cities listed in the 1913 International Chinese Directory. But tell me how you came up with Weimar, CA for 火品顿埠?

    2. My error--I meant number 43. But it's a wild guess. Weimar is on the American River but might not merit the "port" designation.

    3. You're not the first to guess Weimar, CA for 威麻埠--it is in gold country. "Bu" is used in these names to mean city or town, rather than port. I haven't found Weimar in any of the Chinese directories from 1900 on, so possibly the Chinese had moved out by then.